The history von the construction des the Cheops pyramid

The beginning des the construction von the pyramid dates zurück to about 2560 BC. Ns architect was Khemion, the nephew von Pharaoh Cheops, who managed all die construction projects des the old Kingdom at that time. It took hinweisen least 20 years kommen sie build ns Cheops pyramid, while, according zu various estimates, more than one hundred thousand human being were involved. The project forced a titanic effort: workers mined blocks weil das construction elsewhere, in the rocks, delivered them along ns river und lifted lock along in inclined pläne to die top von the pyramid on a wood sled. For the construction des the Cheops pyramid, much more than 2.5 million granite and limestone blocks to be needed, und a gilded abwesend was mounted at die very top, i beg your pardon gave ns entire cladding die color des the sun"s rays. But in the second century, when the Arabs destroyed Cairo, the locals dismantled ns entire facing des the pyramid kommen sie build their houses.

Du schaust: Wie groß ist die cheops pyramide

For almost three millennia, ns Cheops pyramid ranked erste on Earth an height, giving the palm only in 1300 kommen sie Lincoln Cathedral. Now the height des the pyramid zu sein 138 m, it has decreased bei comparison with the original von 8 m, und the base area ist more 보다 5 hectares.

The pyramid of Cheops zu sein revered von the locals together a shrine, and every year on ehrenvoll 23, the Egyptians celebrate ns day ns construction began. Why august was chosen, no one knows, because no historical facts confirming this have been found.

The device of the Cheops pyramid

Inside ns pyramid des Cheops, three funeral chambers are of greatest interest, which are located one above the other in a strict vertical. The lowest one remained unfinished, ns second belongs to the wife des the pharaoh, und the dritter belongs to Cheops himself.

To travel along ns corridors, zum the convenience des tourists, paths with steps were laid, railings were made und lighting was installed.

Cross section von the Cheops pyramid

1. Taste entrance 2. Ns entrance the al-Mamun make 3. Crossroads, "traffic jam" und al-Mamun"s keller made "bypassing" 4. Diminish corridor 5. Unfinished underground room 6. Ascending corridor

7. "Queen"s Chamber" through outgoing "air ducts" 8. Scorses tunnel

10. Pharaoh"s chamber v "air ducts" 11. Antechamber 12. Mainsail

The enntrance gate to the pyramid

The enntrance gate to die Cheops pyramid is in arch formed des stone slabs und is located on the north side, hinweisen a elevation of 15 m 63 cm. Previously it was filled v a granite plug, but it has not survived to this day. In 820, Caliph Abdullah al-Mamun decided zu find treasures an the pyramid und made a seventeen-meter space 10 meter below die historic entrance. Die Baghdad ruler did notfall find anything, but heute tourists enter die pyramid with this tunnel.

When al-Mamun was making his way, a lump von limestone that dropped out blocked the entrance kommen sie another ascending corridor, und three more granite plugs remained behind die limestone. Because a vertical tunnel was found at ns junction des two corridors, descending and ascending, it was suggested that granite plugs were lowered down with it bei order to siegel the tomb after ns burial von the Egyptian king.

Burial "pit"

The to decrease corridor, which ist 105 meters long, descends into die ground at bei inclination des 26 ° 26"46 and abuts against another 8.9 m lang corridor leading to chamber 5 und located horizontally. Here is in unfinished chamber measuring 14 × 8.1 m, an shape stretching from ost to west. Zum a long time it was believed that there were no various other rooms an the pyramid except this corridor and the chamber, but it turned the end differently. Die height des the room reaches 3.5 m. At the southern wall of the room there is a well v a depth des about 3 m, indigenous which a small manhole (0.7 × 0.7 m an cross-section) expand 16 m southwards, ending in a tot end.

Engineers john Shae Perring and Howard Wyse (Richard william Howard Vyse) in the early 19th century tore apart die cell"s floor und dug a well 11.6 ns deep, an which they hoped to find a hidden funeral room. They to be based on die testimony des Herodotus, who said that Cheops"s body is located on in island surrounded by a channel an a hidden underground chamber. Your excavations have führen zu nowhere. Later research verified that the chamber was abandoned unfinished, und that ns burial chambers to be arranged in the center of the pyramid itself.

The interior von the funeral pit, photo from 1910Ascending corridor and Queen"s Chambers

From the zuerst third von the descending i (after 18 m from the hauptsächlich entrance) upwards at the same angle des 26.5 °, in ascending passage (6) around 40 m long goes to die south, ending at the bottom of the good Gallery (9).

At that is beginning, ns ascending passage contains 3 big cubic granite "plugs", which from ns outside, from the descending passage, were masked by a block of limestone that fell out during ns works of al-Mamun. The turned the end that for almost 3 thousand years, researchers were sure that there were no various other rooms an the great Pyramid, except zum the diminish passage und the underground chamber. Al-Mamun failed to break v these plugs, and he merely gouged a bypass in the softer limestone to the right von them.


In ns middle von the ascending passage, the construction des the walls has a peculiarity: so-called “frame stones” space installed in three places - that is, die passage, square along the entire length, pierces through 3 monoliths. Die purpose of these stones zu sein unknown.

A schnorse corridor 35 ns long und 1.75 m high leader to the second interment chamber from the lower part von the great Gallery southward. It ist traditionally called the "Queen"s Chamber", although according to the rite des the wives des the pharaohs, they were buried bei separate klein pyramids. Die “Queen"s Chamber”, faced with limestone, procedures 5.74 meters from east to west and 5.23 meter from north to south; its maximum height ist 6.22 meters. There zu sein a high niche in the eastern wall of the chamber.


Grotto, good Gallery and Pharaoh"s Chambers

Another offshoot from die lower part of the good Gallery ist a narrow, almost vertical shaft, around 60 ns high, leading to die lower part of the to decrease passage. Over there is an assumption the it was intended zum the evacuation des workers or priests who were completing ns "sealing" of the main passage to ns "King"s Chamber". Approximately in the middle von it there is a small, most most likely natural expansion - "Grotto" des irregular shape, an which several people could rechts at most. The grotto (12) is located at die "junction" of the pyramid"s stonework und a small, about 9 meter high, hill on a limestone plateau, i m sorry lies at die base of the an excellent Pyramid. The walls von the Grotto are partially strengthened with old stonework, und since some of its stones are auch large, over there is an assumption that die Grotto exist on die Giza plateau as in independent structure long before die construction des the pyramids, und the evacuation shaft itself was built taking right into account die location von the Grotto. However, given the fact that the mine was hollowed out in the currently laid masonry, und not laid out, as evidenced von its irregular one cross-section, ns question arises of how the builders managed to get to the Grotto.


The an excellent Gallery continues the ascending passage. The height zu sein 8.53 m, it zu sein rectangular in cross-section, with slightly tapering upward ("false vault") walls, a high inclined kellers 46.6 m long. In the middle von the good Gallery, practically along its whole length, there is a square depression 1 meter wide in cross-section and a depth von 60 cm, and on both lateral protrusions there are 27 pairs des indentations des unknown purpose. Die deepening ends with a "Big Step" - a high scorseses ledge, a platform von 1x2 meters, weist the end of ns Great Gallery, directly in front von the accessibility to die "entrance" - die Predicamera. Ns site has actually a pair des recesses similar to die ramp depressions in the corners of the wall. Through die "hallway" the manhole leads to the burial "Tsar"s Chamber" confronted with schwarz granite, where in empty granite sarcophagus ist located.

Above the "Tsar"s Chamber" room found an the XIX century. 5 unloading cavities with a pistole height des 17 m, bolzen which there are monolithic slabs about 2 m thick, und above there zu sein a gable floor. Your purpose is to distribute the weight des the overlying layers des the pyramid (about a million tons) in order zu protect the "King"s Chamber" from pressure. An these voids, gekritzel was discovered, more than likely left von workers.


A network des ventilation ducts leads from the chambers to ns north und south. Die channels from die Queen"s room do not reach the surface von the pyramid von 12 meters, und the networks from ns Pharaoh"s Chamber kommen sie to the surface. No various other pyramid has such branches found. Scientists oase not come to a unanimous opinion even if it is they were built zum ventilation or connected to the Egyptians" concepts about die afterlife. At the upper ends of the channels there are doors, most most likely symbolizing the entrance kommen sie another world. Bei addition, ns channels indicate die stars: Sirius, Tuban, Alnitak, which renders it possible to assume that die Cheops pyramid had bei astronomical purpose.

Surroundings of the Cheops pyramid

At ns eastern edge von the Cheops pyramid there room 3 small pyramids von his wives und family members. They are situated from north kommen sie south, according to size: ns side von the base of each building ist 0.5 meters smaller than die previous one. They space well preserved inside; time only partially destroyed die outer facing. Surrounding you kann see ns foundation von the funeral temple von Khufu, within which drawings were found illustrating a routine performed by the pharaoh, it was called the Unification of the two Lands.

Pharaoh"s boats

The Pyramid von Cheops ist the central figure of the complex von buildings, the location of which had actually ritual significance. Ns procession with the deceased Pharaoh crossed die Nile to ns west bank on numerous boats. The zuerst part of the funeral awareness began in the lower church, to which die boats were sailing. Further, ns procession walk to the upper temple, where die prayer house und altar to be located. To the west des the upper holy place was die pyramid itself.

On each side von the pyramid, an rocky recesses, boats were walled up, on which the pharaoh was supposed zu travel through die afterlife.

In 1954, excavator Zaki zeigen discovered the erste boat, called die Solar Boat. It was made von Lebanese cedar, consisted of 1224 parts, without any kind of traces des attachment and connection. That dimensions: length 43 m und width 5.5 m. 16 year were spent on restoring the boat.

On ns southern side of the Cheops pyramid, a museum des this boat is open.


The 2nd boat was found an a mine located ost of die place where the first boat was found. A camera was lowered into the shaft, which showed traces von insects on die boat, deshalb it was decided not to raise it und seal the shaft. This decision was made über the scientist Eshimuro from Waseda University.

In total, seven pits were uncovered with real ancient Egyptian watercrafts taken apart.

Video: 5 unsolved secrets des the pyramids des Egypt

How to get there

If sie want to seen the good Pyramid von Cheops, freundin need to arrive bei Cairo. However there are practically no direct flights from Russia und you will have to do a transfer in Europe. Without a change, you tun können fly to Sharm el-Sheikh, and from there fliegen 500 kilometers zu Cairo. You tun können get zu your destination by a comfortable bus, the journey time ist about 6 hours, or you tun können continue by plane, they paris to Cairo every half hour. In Egypt, they are an extremely loyal zu Russian tourists; a visa tun können be derived directly at ns airport ~ landing. It wollen cost $ 25 and is issued weil das a month.

Where to stay

If your goal ist the treasures of antiquity und you have come to the pyramids, climate you can choose a hotel in Giza and in the center of Cairo. Over there are virtually two hundreds comfortable hotels with all the benefits of civilization. In addition, over there are numerous attractions in Cairo, it is a stadt of contrasts: modern skyscrapers and ancient minarets, noisy vibrant bazaars and nightclubs, neon nights und quiet palm gardens.

Instruction for tourists

Don"t forget that Egypt ist a Muslim state. Men should simply disregard Egyptians, because even an innocent touch kann sein be considered harassment. Women must follow the rules von dress. Modesty and again modesty, a minimum of exposed parts des the body.

Tickets zum organized excursions to ns pyramids tun können be purchased at any hotel.

The pyramid zone ist open to the public in the summer from 8 am to 5 pm, bei the winter it zu sein open weil das half an hour less, ns cost of the entrance ticket is about 8 euros.

Museums room paid separately: you kann see die Solar Boats zum 5 euros.

For die entrance to the Cheops pyramid, you wollen be fee 13 euros, visiting ns pyramid von Chephren möchte cost much less - 2.6 euros. Die passage ist very short here and be prepared zum the reality that freundin will schutz to go 100 meters in a bend position.

Other pyramids, such as those von Khafre"s wife und mother, tun können be regarded free of charge von showing in entrance ticket to ns area.

The finest time to lakers them is bei the morning, appropriate after opening. It is strictly forbidden kommen sie climb die pyramids, cut off a piece des memory und write "There was ...". You kann sein pay a fine weil das this the it will exceed the cost des your trip.

If freundin want to capture yourself against the backdrop des the pyramids or just the surroundings, prepare 1 euro for die right kommen sie shoot, photography ist prohibited inside die pyramids. If sie are offered zu photograph you, do not agree and do notfall give the camera kommen sie anyone, otherwise you will oase to buy that back.

Tickets zum visiting die pyramids room limited: 150 pieces room sold punkt 8 in and die same number at 1 pm. There are two cash desks: one weist the main entrance, die other at ns Sphinx.

Each of the pyramids is closed when a year zum restoration work, deshalb you space unlikely to lakers everything punkt once.

Mehr sehen: Nach Ausbildung Arbeitslos Melden, Zur Ausbildung Mal Arbeitslos Gemeldet

If you do notfall want kommen sie walk every over ns Giza area, you tun können rent a camel. That is cost will depend on her bargaining ability. But keep an mind that freundin will notfall be told all the prices weist once, and when you roll, it turns out the you schutz to pay weil das getting off the camel.

Delicate tip: the toilet is located in the Solar boat Museum.

On die territory of the pyramid region there are cafeterias wherein you tun können have a good lunch.

There zu sein a one-hour sound and light nur every evening. It ist held in different languages: Arabic, English, Japanese, Spanish, French. ~ above Sundays, ns show is held in Russian. It ist recommended zu split die visit to ns pyramids and the visit to ns show weil das two days, otherwise sie will notfall be able zu accommodate deswegen many impressions.

Age of the pyramid

The architect von the an excellent Pyramid ist Hemiun, die vizier and nephew of Cheops. He deshalb bore die title of "Manager von all Pharaoh"s building sites." It zu sein assumed that ns construction, i m sorry lasted twenty years (during ns reign of Cheops), ended approximately 2540 BC. E. ...

The existing methods des dating the time des the beginning des the construction von the pyramid are separated into historical, astronomical and radiocarbon dating. Bei Egypt, officially established (2009) and celebrated die date des the beginning von the construction von the pyramid of Cheops - august 23, 2560 BC. E. This date was obtained using ns astronomical method von Keith Spence (University of Cambridge). However, this method und the dates obtained v its assist were criticized über many Egyptologists. Dates according kommen sie other date methods: 2720 BC e. (Stephen Hack, University of Nebraska) 2577 BC e. (Juan antonio Belmonte, University von Astrophysics in Canaris) und 2708 BC. E. (Pollux, Bauman University). Ns radiocarbon an approach gives a range from 2680 BC. E. Zu 2850 BC e. Therefore, ns established "birthday" des the pyramid has no major confirmation, since Egyptologists cannot agree on ns exact year in which building and construction began.

The first mention von the pyramid

The complete absence des any mention des the pyramid in the Egyptian papyri continues to be a mystery. The erste descriptions are found bei the Greek chronicler Herodotus (5th century BC) and in ancient Arab legends < >. Herodotus report (at least 2 millennia after die appearance von the an excellent Pyramid) the it was erected under a despotic pharaoh named Cheops (Greek. Koufou), that ruled zum 50 years, that die construction work 100 thousands people. Weil das twenty years, and that ns pyramid is in honor von Cheops, but notfall his grave. The echt grave zu sein a funeral near die pyramid. Herodotus offered erroneous information about ns size des the pyramid, and deshalb mentioned the middle pyramid von the Giza plateau, that it was erected by the daughter von Cheops, who sold herself, und that every building abwesend corresponded to the man to who she was given. According to Herodotus, if "to background a stone, a lang winding route to ns grave opened up up", there is no specifying i m sorry pyramid in question; however, ns pyramids des the Giza plateau had no "winding" courses to the tomb at ns time von their visit by Herodotus; on the contrary, die descending passage des the BP Cheops zu sein distinguished by careful straightness. Und there to be no various other premises in the BP weist that time.

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The Überleben fragments des the lining of the pyramid und the remains des the pavement that surrounded die building

The pyramid zu sein called "Akhet-Khufu" - "Horizon des Khufu" (or an ext precisely, "Relating to ns sky - (this) Khufu"). Consists von limestone und granite blocks. It was built on a organic limestone hill. After die pyramid has lost several layers of cladding, this hill ist partially visible on the east, north and south sides des the pyramid. Despite ns fact that ns Cheops pyramid is the tallest and most voluminous von all Egyptian pyramids, Pharaoh Sneferu nonetheless built ns pyramids an Meidum und Dakhshut (Broken Pyramid and Pink Pyramid), die total mass of which ist estimated at 8.4 million tons.

The pyramid was originally confronted with a harder white limestone than the hauptsächlich blocks. Ns top des the pyramid was crowned with a gilded stone - ns pyramidion (ancient Egyptian - "Benben"). Ns facing shone an the sun with a peach color, like "a bright miracle, to which the sun god Ra himself appeared to schutz given all his rays." in 1168, ns Arabs sacked und burned Cairo. Residents des Cairo removed the cladding from the pyramid in order zu build neu houses.

Statistical data

Pyramid des Cheops bei the 19th century

Map des the necropolis near ns pyramid von Cheops

Height (today): ≈ 136.5 mSide slope angle (now): 51 ° 50 "Side Rib size (originally): 230.33 m (estimated) or about 440 imperial cubitsSide rib length (now): around 225 mThe length des the sides of the base of the pyramid: southern - 230.454 m; phibìc - 230.253 m; west - 230.357 m; east - 230.394 mBase area (initially): ≈ 53,000 m2 (5.3 ha)Side surface ar area des u200bu200bthe pyramid (initially): ≈ 85,500 ns 2Base perimeter: 922 mTotal volume von the pyramid without deduction of cavities inside ns pyramid (initially): ≈ 2.58 million m 3Total volume of the pyramid minus all recognized cavities (initially): 2.50 million m3Average volume von stone blocks: 1.147 m 3Average weight von stone blocks: 2.5 tThe heaviest kies block: about 35 lots - located above ns entrance to die "King"s Chamber".The number of blocks of the typical volume does notfall exceed 1.65 million (2.50 million m³ - 0.6 million m³ of the rock base inside the pyramid u003d 1.9 million m 3 / 1.147 ns 3 u003d 1.65 million blocks des the specified volume tun können physically fit in the pyramid , without taking into account die volume of the solution in the interblock seams); attributing zu a 20-year construction duration * 300 working days a year * 10 working hours a work * 60 minutes an hour leads zu a speed des laying (and delivery to ns construction site) - around a block des two minutes.According to calculations, the total weight des the pyramid zu sein about 4 million loads (1.65 million blocks x 2.5 tons)The base of the pyramid rests ~ above a natural rock eminence through a height of about 12-14 m bei the center and occupies, follow to the latest data, hinweisen least 23% of the initial volume des the pyramidThe number von layers (tiers) des stone block - 210 (at die time von construction). Jetzt there space 203 layers.

Concavity von sides

The concavity of the sides von the Cheops pyramid

As die sun move around the pyramid, you can notice die unevenness von the wall surfaces - the concavity des the main part of the walls. This might be due to erosion or damages from falling stein cladding. It is so possible that this was done on purpose during construction. As Vito Maragioglio und Celeste Rinaldi note, die Micerin pyramid no longer has such concave sides. I.E.S. Edwards explains this feature by the fact that the central part of each side end time simply pressed inward from die large mass von stone blocks. < >

As bei the 18th century, wie man this phenomenon was discovered, today there is blieb no satisfactory explanation zum this feature des architecture.

Observation von the concavity von the sides punkt the ende of the 19th century, Description des Egypt

Tilt angle

It is not possible kommen sie accurately determine the anfangsverdacht parameters des the pyramid, due to the fact that its edges and surfaces are currently mostly dismantled and destroyed. This provides it difficult zu calculate the exact tilt angle. In addition, its the opposite itself zu sein not perfect, deswegen there space deviations in the number with different measurements.

Geometric study of ventilation tunnels

The study von the geometry von the great Pyramid does notfall give an unambiguous answer to ns question von the original proportions des this structure. It is assumed that the Egyptians had in idea of u200bu200bthe "Golden Ratio" und the number pi, which to be reflected in the proportions von the pyramid: weil das example, ns ratio of height zu base ist 14/22 (height u003d 280 cubits, und base u003d 440 cubits, 280/440 u003d 14 / 22). Weil das the first time bei world history, these values u200bu200bwere used bei the construction von the pyramid in Meidum. However, zum the pyramids von the letztere eras, this proportions were not used all over else, as, for example, some schutz ratios des height to the base, favor 6/5 (Pink pyramid), 4/3 (Khafre"s pyramid) or 7/5 (Broken pyramid).

Some of the theory consider ns pyramid kommen sie be bei astronomical observatory. It zu sein argued that ns corridors des the pyramid accurately suggest towards die "polar star" of that time - Tuban, die ventilation corridors of the south side - to the stern Sirius, and from die north side - to the star Alnitak.

Internal structure

Cross section von the Cheops pyramid:

The enntrance gate to die pyramid zu sein 15.63 meter high on die north side. Ns entrance is formed by stone slabs, laid an the form of in arch, yet this is a structure that was inside the pyramid - die true entrance has not been preserved. Ns true enntrance gate to ns pyramid was most most likely closed with a kies plug. A description von such a cork kann be found an Strabo, und its appearance can deshalb be imagined based on the Überleben slab that closed die upper entrance to the Broken Pyramid des Sneferu, ns father of Cheops. Today, tourist enter the pyramid through a 17-meter break, which was made bei 820 by the Baghdad caliph Abdullah al-Mamun 10 meters lower. He hoped kommen sie find there die untold treasures of the pharaoh, yet found there only a layer des dust half a cubit thick.

Inside ns Cheops pyramid there are three interment chambers, one above the other.

Burial "pit"

Underground chamber maps

A 105 m lang descent corridor at an incline of 26 ° 26"46 leads kommen sie a scorseses corridor 8.9 m lang leading to ns chamber 5... Located listed below ground level bei a rocky limestone foundation, it continued to be unfinished. Ns chamber dimensions room 14 × 8.1 m, it is stretched from east to west. Die height reaches 3.5 m, die ceiling has a big crack. At die southern wall of the room there ist a well around 3 m deep, from which a small manhole (0.7 × 0.7 m an section) stretches southward zum 16 m, ending in a tot end. Engineers john Shae Perring and Richard williams Howard Vyse cleared ns floor in the cell bei the early 19th century und dug in 11.6m deep well in which lock hoped kommen sie find a hidden funeral chamber. They were based on die testimony von Herodotus, that asserted that ns body des Cheops was located on in island surrounded von a channel in a surprise underground chamber. Your excavations have führen zu nowhere. Danach research proved that die chamber was left unfinished, und that die burial chambers were arranged bei the center des the pyramid itself.

Ascending corridor and Queen"s Chambers

From the zuerst third von the descending passage (after 18 ns from the hauptsächlich entrance) increase at the same angle of 26.5 ° go to die south an ascending i ( 6) around 40 ns long, finishing at ns bottom of the an excellent Gallery ( 9).

At the beginning, ns ascending passage has 3 big cubic granite "plugs", i beg your pardon from the outside, from the descending passage, were masked by a block von limestone that dropped out during ns works of al-Mamun. Thus, during the first 3000 years from die construction of the pyramid (including during die era von its active visits in Antiquity) it was believed that there to be no other rooms bei the good Pyramid, except zum the diminish passage und the underground chamber. Al-Mamun failed to break v these plugs and he simply carved a bypass bei the softer limestone to ns right of them. This passage is blieb used today. There are two main theories about plugs, one des which is based on die fact that the ascending passage has actually plugs mounted at ns beginning des construction und thus this passage was sealed von them from die beginning. Die second insurance claims that the current narrowing von the walls was caused by in earthquake, and the plugs were previously within die Great Gallery und were provided to seal the passage just after the funeral of the pharaoh.

An necessary mystery des this section des the ascending passage is that an the place where ns plugs are now located, in the full-size, albeit shortened, modell of the pyramid"s passages - die so-called prüfung corridors north des the good Pyramid - there zu sein a junction of notfall two, but three corridors at once, ns third des which zu sein the upright tunnel. Due to the fact that no one has been able kommen sie move die traffic jams dafür far, die question des whether there zu sein a vertical hole over them stays open.

In the middle von the ascending passage, the construction des the walls has actually a peculiarity: so-called “frame stones” are installed in three locations - the is, die passage, square along ns entire length, pierces through three monoliths. Ns purpose des these stones zu sein unknown. Bei the area von u200bu200bthe frame stones, the walls von the passage schutz several small niches.

A horizontal corridor 35 ns long and 1.75 m high leads to die second funeral chamber from die lower part of the good Gallery in a southern direction. Ns walls of this scorseses corridor space made von very huge blocks of limestone, on i beg your pardon false "seams" room applied, imitating masonry from blocks von smaller size ... Behind die western wall of the passage, there room cavities filled through sand. Die second chamber zu sein traditionally called ns "Queen"s Chamber", although according to ns rite des the wives des the pharaohs, they were buried in separate klein pyramids. Ns “Queen"s Chamber”, faced with limestone, measures 5.74 meters from ost to west und 5.23 meter from north to south; its preferably height is 6.22 meters. There is a high niche bei the east wall von the cell.

Drawing von the Queen"s room ( 7)

Niche in the wall von the Queen"s Chamber

Corridor at ns entrance to die Queen"s hall (1910)

Entrance to ns Queen"s room (1910)

Niche in the Queen"s room (1910)

The ventilation duct an the queen"s room (1910)

The corridor to die ascending kellers ( 12)

Granite plug (1910)

Ascending kellers corridor (on ns left - extending blocks)

Grotto, great Gallery and Pharaoh"s Chambers

Another offshoot from die lower part von the an excellent Gallery is a narrow, almost vertical shaft, about 60 m high, top to the lower part of the descending passage. There is bei assumption that it was intended for the evacuation von workers or priests who to be completing the "sealing" von the taste passage to ns "King"s Chamber". Approximately in the middle of it there is a small, most most likely natural extension - "Grotto" of irregular shape, in which several people could fit at most. Mainsail ( 12) ist located at the "junction" von the abwesend masonry of the pyramid and a small, around 9 meter high, hill on a limestone plateau, lie at die base von the good Pyramid. Die walls von the Grotto space partially strengthened with old stonework, und since some von its stones are too large, over there is in assumption that die Grotto exist on ns Giza plateau as an independent structure lang before the construction of the pyramids, und the evacuation mine itself was built taking right into account the location des the Grotto. However, given the fact that ns mine was hollowed out an the already laid masonry, und not to adjust out, together evidenced über its irregular one cross-section, ns question arises of how ns builders managed to get to the Grotto.

The great Gallery continues ns ascending passage. That is height ist 8.53 m, it ist rectangular in cross-section, with slightly tapering upward (the so-called "false vault") walls, a high inclined tunnel 46.6 ns long. An the middle von the great Gallery virtually along the entire size there zu sein a square depression, regular an cross-section measure up 1 meter wide and 60 cm deep, und on both side projections there space 27 pairs of indentations des unclear purpose. Die deepening ends with die so-called. "Big step" - a high horizontal ledge, a platform 1 × 2 meters punkt the ende of the Great Gallery, directly in front of the manhole into ns "hallway" - ns Antechamber. Die site has a pair von depressions comparable to ns ramp depressions at ns corners of the wall (28th and last pair von depressions BG). Through die "hallway" a manhole leads to ns burial "Tsar"s Chamber" confronted with black granite, where bei empty granite sarcophagus zu sein located. Die sarcophagus lid is missing. The ventilation shafts have mouths bei the "Tsar"s Chamber" on die southern und northern walls weist a height of about one meter from ns floor level. The mouth of the southerly ventshakhta zu sein badly damaged, die northern one appears intact. Ns floor, ceiling, walls of the chamber perform not schutz any decorations or holes or fasteners of anything associated to ns construction von the pyramid. Ns ceiling slabs all burst along die southern wall and do not fall into die room only due to ns pressure des the overlying blocks von the weight.

Above die "Tsar"s Chamber" there are five unloading cavities discovered an the 19th century v a total height von 17 m, betwee which there space monolithic granite slabs around 2 m thick, und above - a gable limestone ceiling. It is believed that their purpose zu sein to distribute the weight of the overlying layers of the pyramid (about a million tons) an order zu protect die "King"s Chamber" indigenous pressure. An these voids, graffiti was discovered, most likely left über workers.

The Interior von the Grotto (1910)

Drawing of the grotto (1910)

Drawing of the connection des the Grotto with die Great gallery (1910)

Tunnel entrance (1910)

View von the great Gallery from the entrance to the premises

Large gallery

Great collection (1910)

Pharaoh"s Camera Drawing

Pharaoh"s chamber

Pharaoh"s room (1910)

The interior of the lobby an front des the Tsar"s chamber (1910)

Channel "ventilation" at the southern wall des the king"s room (1910)

Ventilation ducts

From the "Tsar"s Chamber" und "Tsarina"s Chamber" in the northern und southern directions (first horizontally, climate obliquely upward), there space so-called "ventilation" networks 20-25 centimeter wide. At die same time, ns channels von the "King"s Chamber", recognized since die 17th century, through, they are open both native below und from above (on the faces von the pyramid), while die lower ends of the channels von the "Queen"s Chamber" room separated from the surface of the wall von about 13 cm, they to be discovered von tapping bei 1872. Ns upper ends of the "Queen"s Chamber" shafts do notfall reach die surface of about 12 meters, und are closed by stone "Gantenbrink Doors", each v two copper handles. Die brass pens to be sealed with plaster seals (not preserved, however traces remained). Bei the southern ventilation mine, ns "door" was discovered in 1993 von a remote-controlled robot "Upuaut II"; ns bend des the north shaft did not allow then find an it the same "door" von this robot. An 2002, with die help des a neu modification von the robot, a hole was drilled bei the southerly “door”, but behind it was a klein cavity 18 centimeters long und another stein “door”. What lies following is still unknown. This robot confirmed the presence of a similar "door" weist the ende of ns northern channel, however it was notfall drilled. In 2010, a neu robot was able to insert a serpentine camera into a drilled hole in the southern "door" and discovered that ns copper "handles" on the other side of the "door" to be decorated bei the form of practiced hinges, and individual signs bei red ocher were used on ns floor of the "ventilation" shaft. Currently, the most prevalent version zu sein that ns purpose of the "ventilation" ducts was of a religious nature and is verbunden with ns Egyptians" ideas about die soul"s trip beyond ns grave. Und the "door" hinweisen the end of die canal ist nothing more than a door to the afterlife. That is why it does not come out to ns surface of the pyramid. At ns same time, the shafts of the upper burial chamber oase through exit outside and inside ns room; it zu sein unclear if this is due kommen sie some change in the ritual; since several meters of the external facing von the pyramid has been destroyed, it zu sein unclear if ns "Gantenbrink Doors" were an the top shafts. (could oase been an the location where die mine was not preserved). In the southerly upper column there is a so-called. "Niches von Cheops" are strange extensions und grooves the may schutz contained a "door". An the northern upper one there space no "niches" punkt all.

Today we will take a pilgrimage several millennia ago, to ns time of the ancient pharaohs und the majestic pyramids. To do this, we wollen go to the Giza plateau - a suburb v a population of an ext than 3 million inhabitants, which is visited von tens von thousands des tourists every year. After all, it zu sein here that the Great Pyramids des Egypt are located, und not bei Cairo itself, as numerous are accustomed zu believe. Und it is this ar that gives us with in amazing opportunity to seen with our own eyes the only one des the 7 wonders of the world that has actually survived to this job - the Cheops pyramid, as well as one von the biggest statues an the world - die famous an excellent Sphinx. Just think, ns complex has actually existed zum over 4500 years! mine head zu sein spinning from such numbers.

What zu sein Giza, a suburb von Cairo, today.

The contemporary district des Giza aussehen poor and inconspicuous. Nothing unique - lots of cars, people, shops, signs ...


... Sometimes not entirely clear.


Smiling residents von modern Giza.


Ironically, die inconspicuous town is adjacent kommen sie one von the most famous ancient architectural complexes in the world. What immediately catches ns eye ist the unusual combination of stadt buildings und the tops des the pyramids hanging end them. Die majestic pyramids seem zu beckon you, inviting freundin to kommen sie closer in order kommen sie lift ns veil of their secrets und legends.



Information: Giza pyramid complicated Location: Pyramids Road, Giza How kommen sie get there: über bus: stop following to ns Ramses Hilton hotel - bus 357, or minibuses an the direction of Giza; über metro: the Giza station, then - über minibus or taxi to ns pyramids; by taxi (20-30 pounds) Cost: 80 LE, students - 40 LE opening hours: summer - 7: 00-19: 00, winter - 8: 00-17: 00 the ticket includes entrance to die Giza plateau (viewing the pyramids from ns outside), visiting ns Valley Temple von Khafre, ns pyramids-companions von Cheops, and some detached small pyramids

Separate tickets: Pyramid of Khufu - 200 LE, students - 100 LE; summer - 8: 00-11: 00, 13: 00-18: 00, winter - 8: 00-11: 00, 13: 00-17: 00; just 150 tickets are marketed before ns break und 150 after. Pyramid von Khafre - 40 LE, college student - 20 LE; Pyramid von Menkaure - temporarily closed; Sun boat Museum - 60 LE; Discounts room provided for students with ns ISIC card

Sound und Light Show- daily at 19:00 - bei English, 20:00 - German, Italian, Spanish, French (depending on die day of the week), 21:00 - in Arabic. Expression - about an hour. There ist a possibility von translation into Russian, Japanese, Polish, Chinese and other languages u200bu200b(via headphones, included bei the price). Phones: (+202) 338-57320, (+202) 338-47823, (+202) 338-67374

Photography zu sein prohibited inside the pyramids. Shooting on a plateau v a tripod - 20 LE. Tickets zum the plateau and separate tickets zum the enntrance gate to ns pyramids of Cheops und Khafre, also as the light show, are offered near different entrances.


Briefly around the taste thing.

Mehr sehen: Wozu Abo Bei Office 365 Abo Verlängern : So Spart Ihr Bares Geld

The Giza Plateau lies an the Libyan Desert. Here are ns buildings of the times of the old Kingdom (XXVI-XXIII centuries BC). Die complex ist based on ns 3 great Pyramids along with their satellite pyramids. Deshalb on the plan von Giza you tun können see the tombs of members of the families of the pharaohs and the nobility, a statue of the great Sphinx, 4 cemeteries, number of temples, a modern center weil das the study von the pyramids and a museum. Kommen sie examine every these buildings an detail, you wollen most most likely need a entirety day. Unfortunately, ich didn"t have that much time, deshalb only the most important objects space included in my article.

Complex plan:


And deshalb the good Pyramids look like a bird"s eye view. They can be seen also from ns window of in airplane if you fliegen over Cairo. So, throughout my zuerst flight kommen sie Egypt, a good half of ns passengers gathered at ns windows, when die captain stated that if we all went to ns right side von the cabin together, the pläne would tilt from such a weight, and we would certainly be may be to see the pyramids. It functioned