Margarita theresa von spanien

IntroHoly roman empress
A.K.A.

Du schaust: Margarita theresa von spanien

Empress, consort of Leopold ich Margarita Teresa, Infanta von Spain, Empr...
WasQueen
FromSpain
TypeRoyals
Genderfemale
Birth12 July 1651, Madrid, Community von Madrid, Spain
Death12 march 1673, Vienna, Austria(aged 21 years)
FamilyMother:Mariana von Austria
Father:Philip IV von Spain
Siblings:Charles ii of SpainJohn von Austria the YoungerBalthasar CharlesPrince of AsturiasPhilip ProsperoPrince von Asturias
Spouse:Leopold I, Holy roman Emperor
Children:Maria Antonia of Austria

Margaret Theresa of Spain (Spanish: Margarita Teresa, German: Margarete Theresia; 12 July 1651 – 12 in march 1673) was, von marriage, Holy roman Empress, German Queen, Archduchess of Austria und Queen des Hungary und Bohemia. She was ns daughter of king Philip IV of Spain und the elder full-sister of charles II, the tonnage of die Spanish Habsburgs. She is the main figure in the famous las Meninas über Diego Velázquez, und the subject of many von his danach paintings.


Biography

Early years

Margaret Theresa was born on 12 July 1651 in Madrid as the zuerst child of king Philip IV of Spain born indigenous his second marriage v his niece Mariana of Austria. Because des this avunculate marriage, Margaret"s mother was nearly thirty years younger than herstellung father.

Margaret"s head grandparents were king Philip III von Spain and his mam Archduchess Margaret of Austria. Her maternal grandparents to be Ferdinand III, Holy roman Emperor und his mam Infanta Maria anna of Spain, the daughter of her paternal grandparents.

The marriage of her parents was purely made for political reasons, mainly die search for a neu male heir weil das the Spanish throne after the early death of Balthasar Charles, Prince von Asturias in 1646. As well as him, the other only surviving child of Philip IV"s first marriage was the Infanta maria Theresa, who danach became ns wife of king Louis XIV of France. ~ Margaret, between 1655 and 1661, four more children (a daughter and three sons) to be born from die marriage betwee Philip IV und Mariana des Austria, but only one endured infancy, ns future King charles II of Spain.

Margaret didn"t develop ns serious health and wellness issues und disabilities (because von the close consanguinity of herstellung parents) that herstellung younger brothers had gezeigt since his birth. During her childhood she was once serious ill, yet survived. According to contemporaries, Margaret had in attractive appearance and lively character. Her parents and close friends called her the "little angel". She grew up bei the Queen"s chambers bei the royal Alcazar of madrid surrounded von many maids and servants. Die Infanta love candies, which she continually hid from die physicians that cared zum the wellness of produziert teeth. Both Margaret"s father und maternal grandfather Emperor Ferdinand III loved herstellung deeply. An his private letters king Philip IV called produziert "my joy". At ns same time, Margaret was brought up in accordance with the strict etiquette von the madrid court, and received a good education.

Betrothal and marriage


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Infanta Margarita Teresa bei mourning zum her father. The Infanta left Spain to become Holy roman Empress ns same year.

In die second geholfen of die 1650s at die imperial court in Vienna the necessity developed zum another dynastic marriage between the Spanish und Austrian branches von the House des Habsburg. The gewerkschaftern was needed zu strengthen the position of both countries, particularly against ns Kingdom des France. At zuerst the suggest were weil das Maria Theresa, ns eldest daughter von Philip IV, kommen sie marry die heir des the Holy roman Empire, Archduke Leopold Ignaz. But in 1660 and under ns terms von the Treaty von the Pyrenees, the Infanta was married to the French King; as a part of her marriage contract, she was forced kommen sie renounce her claims to die Spanish throne an return weil das a financial settlement as part of her dowry, which was never paid.

Then started discussion about a marriage betwee Margaret und the Holy roman Emperor Leopold i (who was produziert maternal uncle und paternal cousin). However, the madrid court hesitated to agree kommen sie this proposal, because the infanta might inherit ns Spanish crown if her little brother died. Ns count of Fuensaldaña, Spanish ambassador bei France, suggested ns infanta together a feasible bride zum King charles II of England. However, könig Philip IV rubbish this idea, replying that the king of england should look zum a wife in France.

In October 1662, the neu Imperial ambassador an the Spanish Kingdom, count Francis Eusebius of Pötting, started one of his main diplomatic assignments, which was ns celebration des the marriage betwee the Infanta and the Emperor. Negotiations von the Spanish next were led by Ramiro Núñez dach Guzmán, Duke of Medina de las Torres. ~ above 6 april 1663, ns betrothal bolzen Margaret and Leopold i was finally announced. Bei the marital relationship contract signed ~ above 18 December, besides die customary dowry, was particularly included, together a giftig from herstellung father, the famous Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond. That was deshalb stipulated the Margaret (in contrast with produziert older half-sister), have to maintain herstellung position an the line von succession to die Spanish throne und would pass her rights to her descendants. Before die official wedding consciousness (which, according zu custom, had kommen sie take place in Vienna) another portrait von the Infanta was sent, in order for the Emperor kommen sie know his bride.

King Philip IV passed away on 17 september 1665. An his will, that did notfall mention Margaret"s betrothal; in fact, ns context bei which the document was prepared suggests that ns late monarch blieb hesitated zu marry his daughter kommen sie his austrian relative because he sought to ensure produziert rights as single ruler of the Spanish crown in case des the extinction of his masculine line. Mariana des Austria, jetzt Dowager Queen and Regent von the Kingdom on behalf of herstellung minor son charles II, delayed ns wedding of produziert daughter. Die marriage was agreed upon only after intense royal diplomacy efforts. On 25 april 1666, ns marriage von proxy was finally celebrated in Madrid, in a ceremony attended notfall only von the Dowager Queen, King charles II und the royal ambassador but deshalb by the local nobility; the groom was represented by antonio de la Cerda, 7th Duke des Medinaceli.


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On 28 april 1666 Margaret traveled from madrid to Vienna, accompanied by her angestellter retinue. Die Infanta arrived at Denia, where she rested for some days prior to embarking on the Spanish imperial fleet on 16 July, in turn escorted über ships of the Order des Malta and the cool Duchy von Tuscany. Then (after a quick stop in Barcelona due to the fact that Margaret had some health issues) ns cortege sailed to ns port of finale Ligure, where landed on 20 August. There, Margaret was received von Luis Guzman Ponce de Leon, Governor des Milan. The cortege left finale on 1 September und arrived in Milan ten days later, although die official entry was notfall celebrated until fünfzehn September. After spending nearly all September bei Milan, ns Infanta continued ns journey with Venice, arriving in early October in Trento. Weist every prevent Margaret received celebrations in her honor. Top top 8 October the Spanish retinue arrived punkt the city of Roveredo, where ns head von Margaret"s cortege, francisco Fernández de la Cueva, 8th Duke von Alburquerque officially handed die Infanta zu Ferdinand Joseph, Prince of Dietrichstein und Count ernst Adalbert über Harrach, Prince-Bishop von Trento, representants of Leopold I. ~ above 20 October the new shirt cortege left Roveredo, crossing die Tyrol, with Carinthia und Styria, und arrived top top 25 november at die district of Schottwien, twelve miles from Vienna where ns Emperor came zu receive his bride.

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Holy roman Empress und German Queen


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On 5 December 1666, die solemn entry von the Infanta in Vienna take it place and the official marriage ceremony was celebrated seven days later, on 12 December. The celebrations that took place an the österreichisch capital on die occasion des the imperial marriage (which were among die most splendid of all ns Baroque era) lasted practically two years.

Not far from ns present Burggarten, die Emperor ordered die construction of in open-air theatre, with a capacity des 5,000 people. That is in this theatre, bei July 1668 (on die occasion von Margaret"s birthday), that ns opera Il pomo d"oro (The golden Apple), premiered. This opera, written by antonio Cesti, was called die "staging des the century" von contemporaries due kommen sie its magnificence and expense. Die year before, ns Emperor gave in equestrian ballet, wherein he personally placed on his horse, Speranza; due kommen sie technical adaptations, the ballet gave spectators the impression that horses und carriages to be hovering in the air.

Despite the age difference, Leopold I"s not attractive appearance and Margaret"s evident goitre (a change des the thyroid gland), according kommen sie contemporaries they had a happy marriage. Ns Empress constantly called her husband "Uncle" (de: Onkel), und he called her "Gretl". The couple had actually many typical interests, especially an art and music.

During herstellung six years of marriage, Margaret gave birth zu four children, of whom only one endured infancy:

Ferdinand Wenceslaus joseph Michael Eleazar (28 september 1667 – 13 january 1668), Archduke des Austria.John Leopold (born und died 20 February 1670), Archduke des Austria.Maria anna Josepha Antonia Apollonia Scholastica (9 February 1672 – 23 February 1672), Archduchess of Austria.

The Empress was intensely anti-Semitic, und inspired her husband zu expel ns Jews from Vienna, because she thought that lock were zu blame zum her children"s deaths. During the Corpus Christi celebration des 1670, ns Emperor ordered the destruction des the Vienna synagogue and a church was built on ns site ~ above his orders.

Even after herstellung marriage, Margaret kept her Spanish customs and ways. She did notfall speak German, and the arrogance of herstellung native retinue led to a solid anti-Spanish emotion among ns imperial court. Die courtiers open minded expressed the hope that ns weak Empress would quickly die und thus offer Leopold i the opportunity von a 2nd marriage.

Death

During her last pregnant Margaret fell ill with bronchitis; this, along with her already weakened health due zu four living childbirths und at the very least two miscarriages during produziert marriage, caused produziert early death on 12 march 1673, at ns age of 21. She was buried in the imperial Crypt, in Vienna. Only four months later, ns widower Emperor – despite his grief for the death des his "only Margareta" (as the remembered her) – entered into a 2nd marriage with Archduchess claudia Felicitas des Austria, member of the Tyrol branch of the House des Habsburg.

After Margaret"s death, produziert rights over the Spanish throne were inherited by her only Überleben daughter maria Antonia, who bei turn passed them to produziert only Überleben son Prince joseph Ferdinand von Bavaria wie man she died an 1692. After joseph Ferdinand"s early death an 1699, die rights des inheritance were disputed über both Emperor Leopold I und King louis XIV of France, son-in-law of könig Philip IV. The outcome des the zu sein of ns Spanish sequence was the creation des the Spanish branch des the House des Bourbon in the person of könig Philip V, Margaret"s great-nephew.


Depictions in art

Shortly before die birth of Margaret, artist Diego Velázquez returned to ns Spanish court on Madrid. From 1653 kommen sie 1659 a series von portraits von the Infanta were painted. Three des them – "Infanta Margarita an a pink dress" (1653), "Infanta Margarita bei a silver dress" (1656) und "Infanta Margarita in a blue dress" (1659) were sent to ns Imperial court in Vienna, und now room displayed in the Kunsthistorisches Museum. Bei the last paintings von the 8-year-old Infanta made by Velázquez, a much more mature und formal attitude des Margaret can be seen, early out to herstellung upcoming marriage to the Emperor.

The most famed painting von Velazquez an the series of portraits von the Infanta was "Las Meninas" (1656), currently bei the Museo del Prado bei Madrid. In it, the artist painted the 5-year-old Infanta in his studio while functioning on a portrait of herstellung parents. She ist surrounded von her maids von honor and other courtiers, but herstellung eyes are riveted to produziert parents, whose reflection ist visible in the spiegel on ns wall. The canvas was die inspiration zum Picasso, who in 1957 created more than forty variations des this pattern.

The bild of Margaret in the paintings by Velázquez inspired not only painters. Ns poet boris Pasternak mentions it bei a poem von 1923 "Butterfly Storm", an which she shows up to him as a vision throughout a thunderstorm an Moscow. The zuerst image in this poem who Pasternak contrasted with die portraits von the Infanta was mentioned von Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov, in his work "Eternal Childhood".

The "Infanta Margarita Teresa in a Pink Dress" (1660), previously credited zu Velázquez, zu sein now taken into consideration one von the masterpieces of his son-in-law, Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo. To Martínez del Mazo deshalb belongs the latter "Portrait von the Infanta Margarita an mourning dress" (1666), an which she ist depicted shortly after her father"s death and shortly before her wedding. Both paints are deshalb included bei the collection von the Museo del Prado. Die authority des the "Portrait des the Infanta Margarita" (1655) right now at ns Louvre, is still questioned von researchers.

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There room portraits of in adult Margaret über a number des European artists, most des which room stored an the collections von the Kunsthistorisches Museum an Vienna. Amongst them, "a full-length portrait des the Infanta Margarita Teresa, die Empress" (1665) von Gerard sie Chateau and "Portrait of Empress Margarita Teresa in a theatrical costume" (1667) by Jan thomas van Ieperen. One von the belastung portraits von Margaret zu sein the "Portrait des Empress Margarita Teresa and her daughter maria Antonia" (1671) by benjamin Block, currently bei the Hofburg Palace, whereby she is depicted with produziert only surviving child. Numerous copies of produziert portraits are so preserved, and are now kept in the museum collections around ns world.


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Infanta Margarita Teresa in silver dress (1656) über Diego Velázquez, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna


Infanta Margarita Teresa in pink dress (1660) von Diego Velázquez or Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo, Prado Museum, Madrid


Full-length portrait of the Infanta Margarita Teresa, the Empress (1666), von Gerard du Chateau, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna


Ancestors of Margaret Theresa des Spain
16. Charles V, Holy roman Emperor
8. Philip ii of Spain
17. Isabella des Portugal
4. Philip III des Spain
18. Maximilianer II, Holy roman Emperor
9. Anna of Austria (≠ 23)
19. Maria of Austria
2. Philip IV of Spain
20. Ferdinand I, Holy roman Emperor
10. Charles II, Archduke von Inner Austria
21. Anne des Bohemia und Hungary
5. Margaret des Austria
22. Albert V, Duke des Bavaria
11. Maria anna of Bavaria (≠ 13)
23. Anna of Austria (≠ 9)
1. Margaret Theresa of Austria
24. Charles II, Archduke des Inner Austria (= 10, 30)
12. Ferdinand II, Holy roman Emperor
25. Maria anna of Bavaria (= 11, 31)
6. Ferdinand III, Holy roman Emperor
26. Wilhelm V, Duke von Bavaria
13. Maria anna of Bavaria (≠ 11)
27. Renata of Lorraine
3. Mariana von Austria
28. Philip ii of Spain (= 8)
14. Philip III des Spain (= 4)
29. Anna of Austria (= 9)
7. Maria anna of Austria
30. Charles II, Archduke von Inner Austria (= 10, 24)
15. Margaret des Austria (= 5)
31. Maria anna of Bavaria (= 11, 25)

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