Josephine Baker Jari Baker

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Josephine Baker refused kommen sie perform weil das segregated audiences an the united States und is noted zum her contributions to die Civil civil liberties Movement. Baker was in American-born French entertainer, French Resistance agent, und civil rights activist. Her career was centered primarily an Europe, mostly an her adopted France. She was the zuerst African-American to star bei a major motion picture, the 1927 silent film Siren von the Tropics, directed von Mario Nalpas und Henri Étiévant.

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During Baker"s work with the Civil legal rights Movement, she began adopting children, forming a household she frequently referred zu as "The Rainbow Tribe".


Baker wanted kommen sie prove the "children des different ethnicities and religions could ausblüten be brothers." She frequently took the children with herstellung cross-country, and when castle were at Château von Milandes, she i ordered it tours dafür visitors can walk ns grounds und see how natural und happy the children bei "The Rainbow Tribe" were. Produziert estate featured hotels, a farm, rides, and the kids singing und dancing for the audience.

She"d charge admission for visitors kommen sie enter and partake an the activities, which consisted of watching ns children play.

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Baker used her children as metaphors: life examples of what mankind should look at like, und her diverse youngsters were used bei a sort von attack against racism. She developed dramatic backstories zum them, picking with clear intent in mind: weist one point she wanted und planned zu get a Jewish baby, however settled zum a French one instead. She also raised them as various religions kommen sie further her model weil das the world, taking two children from Algeria and raising one Muslim und the various other Catholic. One member des the Tribe, Jean-Claude Baker, said:

She wanted a doll.

Another, Akio who was adopted from Japan, said

She was a an excellent artist, und she was our mother. Mother make mistakes. Nobody"s perfect.

Baker raised two daughters, French-born Marianne und Moroccan-born Stellina, and 10 sons, Korean-born Jeannot (or Janot), Japanese-born Akio, Colombian-born Luis, Finnish-born Jari (now Jarry), French-born Jean-Claude and Noël, Israeli-born Moïse, Algerian-born Brahim, Ivorian-born Koffi, and Venezuelan-born Mara.

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<56><57> weil das some time, Baker lived with her children and in enormous staff bei the château in Dordogne, France, with produziert fourth husband, Jo Bouillon.

BornDiedResting placeResidenceNationalityOccupationYearsactiveSpouse(s)Partner(s)ChildrenGenresInstrumentsLabels

Freda Josephine McDonald

3 June 1906

St. Louis, Missouri, united States

12 april 1975 (aged68)

Paris, France

Monaco Cemetery
Roquebrune, Provence-Alpes-Côte d"Azur, (French Riviera), France
American (renounced)French (1937–1975)
Civil civil liberties activist, vedette, singer, Decorated World war II Spy
Willie Wells(m.1919; div.1919)William Baker(m.1921; div.1925)Jean Lion(m.1937; div.1940)Jo Bouillon(m.1947; div.1961)
Robert Brady (1973–1975)
adopted 12 children; not blocked Jean-Claude Baker
Musical career
Cabaretmusic hallFrench popFrench jazz
Columbia, Mercury, RCA Victor